Book – Training for PSA 1 Surprise Scenarios Final 2015-2016 •
by Jerry Bradshaw •
The .pdf version •
PSA 1 has included surprise scenarios for the past few years. The judges and directors have the intention to use the PSA 1 surprise scenario in the protection phase to prepare handlers for dealing with standard scenarios in the level 2 as well as to get handlers thinking about surprise scenarios in the higher levels. You can see how each of these scenarios has a theme or themes that are usually related to the beginning stages of the upper level types of scenarios. Approaching surprise scenarios includes training and handling. The training part should be done before you show up at a trial. In this short booklet, we will break down each of the five scenarios into their component training elements, so that the elements required can be trained. Once the training is done, handlers must understand how to handle their dogs through the scenarios, and to understand the risk-reward tradeoffs that are what makes PSA so exciting. Therefore, we will break down the five scenarios one by one into component skills, train the component skills, and then put the exercises back together. Many of the component skills are the same for multiple scenarios. At the end there will be a short discussion of handling strategy in the PSA 1. Send Through Tunnel on Passive Decoy (Guard/Return): The dog and handler shall start at a marked cone. A regulation tunnel obstacle will be set up no farther than 10 yards from the start cone. Directly in line with the tunnel, a passive decoy shall set up 15 yards behind the tunnel. On the handler’s command, the dog shall be sent through the tunnel, and engage the passive decoy on a frontal send. The handler may have 3 opportunities to send the dog through the tunnel from the start cone. Any advance from the start cone shall result in a point deduction, depending on how far the handler advances. Each separate command to go thru the tunnel shall result in a point deduction according to the judge’s discretion. Once engaged, the decoy shall drive the dog with a distraction of the judge’s choosing. On command of the steward, the decoy shall freeze up, and the handler shall be asked to out his dog. The dog shall out on the handler’s command, and perform either an out and guard, or out and return. If the dog guards, the handler shall approach and pick his dog up on the signal of the steward, and the exercise shall be terminated once the dog heels away for a short distance. If the dog returns, the exercise shall be complete when the dog returns to heel position. Upon pickup or return, the handler shall attach the leash. The handler may attach the leash on the dog in the guard. Scoring: Send (10) Tunnel (5) Hit (5) Grip (10) Release (10) Guard/Return (10) When I break down a scenario for training, I like to break it down into components. Because this is a flowing sequence of a behavior chain, I will break it down in reverse, so I look at the last thing the dog must do first. In this case the component elements required are as follows:
- Skill 1: Guard or Return
- Skill 2: Out on Command
- Skill 3: Grip on a Passive Decoy
- Skill 4: Go through a tunnel
- Skill 5: Send away to an obstacle.
Skill 1: Guard or Return: Dogs in PSA 1 should already know how to do either an out or a return. If they don’t they have no chance at passing the other scenarios in the trial. The key here is that the handler has a choice. If your dog is stronger in his return, you should use that; if he is stronger in his guard you should use that. That seems obvious to say, but in the heat of handling you should prepare yourself for what you are going to do, before you step on the field, and keep to that plan of action. Handling on the fly is difficult at best, so make your decisions before things get fast and stressful, and stay with your game plan. Skill 2: Release on Command: Every PSA dog should have a clean out. This is a basic skill, and should be attended to in every training session. But here again, this scenario doesn’t present anything new for the PSA 1 dog to train. Your dog knows an out. Skill 3: Grip on a passive Decoy: This may be a new skill for you. If your dog is high in prey drive, it probably won’t be a difficult skill to train. However, if your decoys are always giving you prey motion, or some kind of threat prior to all your training bites, the dog may think something is wrong when you ask him to go on a passive decoy. Think about this: all the other bites in PSA 1 – the car jack, handler attack, and courage test – involve motion prior to the grip. The car jack decoy turns and attacks your dog in the car, the handler attack decoy runs out from the hiding place with distractions at your dog, and on the courage test, the decoy is running at your dog. There are elements of both prey (triggered by movement) and defense (triggered by threat) in all three of these exercises. A passive decoy is just standing there, not moving or threatening your dog. You can train the dog to take a passive bite, by again working backwards. If you are in PSA 1, your dog should be very comfortable with the decoy agitating and moving either toward him or away from him for a grip in the front. What you now need to do is slowly de-condition the dog to these cues of movement or threat as the pre-cursor to the send. Set up in front of the passive decoy, have the decoy give minimal agitation, just enough to get the dog loaded, and send the dog. The decoy moves toward or away from the dog upon the send command. As sessions progress, slowly eliminate the amount of initial agitation prior to the send, so the dog expects that once he is sent on the decoy, his running to the decoy makes the decoy move. Then, slowly make the decoy wait longer and longer, until the dog is closer before giving any movement, until there is movement only just prior to the grip. Then eliminate all the movement, however, once the decoy is engaged, and the dog is in the grip, the decoy gives the dog a nice fight. The dog will learn to “turn on” the decoy by the act of biting. (Later in PSA 3 a judge may set up a scenario where the dog must take a passive bite and stay engaged in the grip while the decoy continues to be passive! This is also a simple de-conditioning exercise. Can you come up with a training plan to train this particular behavior?)
This procedure for a passive bite should be started in your basic bite training from the beginning, but in many cases it is not. I see a lot of trainers have the decoy start the action for a young dog, by moving first, and having the dog get ramped up to bite as a result. In my training, as soon as I can do it, even with a puppy, I wait to see some proactive behavior on the part of the young dog prior to the decoy giving movement. Either the dog barks to start the action on command (which we can develop continually as the dog matures) or even if the dog only shows signs of forward movement into the line on a passive decoy, that proactivity is rewarded by movement on the part of the decoy. Thus my dogs learn that all decoys are passive until they (the dog) does something first, not the other way around. Thus the dog starts the action, not the decoy. This is critical for a PSA dog.
My YouTube channel also has a sequence of videos showing the progression of teaching a passive bite in hidden sleeve. You can do the same with a bite suit or a hidden suit: http://www.youtube.com/TarheelK9
Skill 4: Go through a Tunnel: You must break down going through the tunnel from being sent through the tunnel. Again work backwards, get the dog going through the tunnel first, and then work on the send. If you have a collapsible tunnel, shorten it up first. I prefer to teach this exercise using a ball or a tug as a reward for going through, before I add a bite reward in. I do this because once the dog gets into drive to bite, it is harder for the dog to learn the exercise, because all that drive clouds the learning process as the dog gets fixated on biting. You can teach the tunnel by tossing the ball through the tunnel and not allowing the dog to go around to get the ball, he must go through. So work on a short leash. I also prefer to put the dog in a down position in front of the tunnel so he is on eye level with the goal you have in mind.
Therefore the process is as follows: On a shortened tunnel, place the dog in a down, with his front paws almost in the tunnel, lined up with the tunnel entrance. Use your leash to keep the dog in the down as you toss the ball through, then give the command you want to use, such as “through” or “tunnel” and guide the dog to the entrance. If he tries to go around, just hold the leash and see if he figures it out, once he commits to go through, release the leash, and praise immediately once he is through. If you praise him while he is in the tunnel, he may turn around and come to your voice. Instead, praise the completion of the exercise. The idea is allow him to self-reward with the ball when correct, and withhold the reward when he tries to go around the tunnel.
The ball is used initially as an inducement to go through, but you should make sure to change to rewarding the behavior for compliance without him seeing the ball go into the tunnel, by either tossing the ball in front of him once he exits or placing the ball on the other side for him to find once he exits. This is called moving from inducement to reward. You will likely encounter some resistance when you change to a reward from using the prey inducement. One way to deal with this is to toss a ball through, and then as soon as he exits throw a second ball to him as he exits. He will likely prefer to chase the moving ball, and come to expect the ball to come firing past him once he goes through on command. Be sure to get the dog neutral to your body position upon sending him – such as placing him in the down, and then standing up prior to giving the command. If you are kneeling or crouching initially, to keep him from going around, you must return your posture to normal as soon as is feasible.
Continue with this, slowly increasing the length of the tunnel (change only one variable at a time) until he goes on command every time. Then change the next variable, position relative to the entrance. Offset the dog to the left or right and repeat from the beginning, placing the dog in a down in front of the tunnel, but off to the side by maybe a few degrees, until you can send him through at a right angle to the tunnel. Repeat to the other side of the tunnel. The dog will generalize these positions more easily over time. Then change his position from a down, to a sit, and then to heeling toward the tunnel, and sending at the last second.
The biggest problem I see with obstacles is that trainers rush through the training of them. If a dog goes straight through a couple of times, people think “My dog has this down!” but in reality there is only a very thin context in which the dog actually will go through on command, and if you change anything the dog will fail. Take your time.
Another issue is anticipation. In the learning stage of this, if the dog anticipates, go with it and let him go through. If you correct him, verbally or with a leash or e-collar at this point, you run the risk of the dog balking at going through because he is not sure of when he is allowed to. Your job as the handler is to restrict him with the leash on a flat collar or by keeping him in obedience (down) that you can enforce easily and without much pressure.
When the dog is anticipating the send through upon heeling toward the tunnel, you can start teaching the send through from a distance. Begin by lining up straight, with the dog in a down, about a foot back from the tunnel. If he will go from a foot back, you can slowly work the distance backwards until he is doing longer sends, up to 10 yards. Then repeat the offset sends, by moving closer initially. The offset sends will teach the dog to look for the entrance, even at a distance, and this proofs his understanding that “tunnel” means go through even if you have to move off line to get through. Continue to use a tug or ball as a reward.
The last piece I teach is for the dog to go through to get the bite. Go back to the beginning, and put the dog in the down with a passive decoy behind the tunnel. Keep the decoy passive, as agitation will only create less clarity as the dog wants to immediately get to the bite. Once the dog exits successfully the decoy can move, drawing the dog and a bite is a reward. Keep these quick, with quick outs or slips of a sleeve or the suit to keep the dog’s mind on the tunnel rather than the fight. I like to start using a sleeve, and as soon as the dog hits have the handler pick up the leash and slip the sleeve to the dog, and start over.
Repeat all the steps, doing offset sends, close to the tunnel from a down to the decoy, through changing his position to a sit, and then heeling up to the tunnel, before going to sends, and offset sends from any distance. If the dog avoids the tunnel, the decoy should not give the dog any satisfying movement if he grips after going around. The dog should encounter a dead decoy if he skips the tunnel, and then start over, moving closer. If you have a good down command, you can down the dog if you see him avoid the tunnel, and then start him over. If your dog is e-collar trained, you can reprimand him and recall him to you if he tries to avoid the tunnel, or nick him and down him as soon as he is off track. At this point the dog should understand the command “tunnel” and there can be consequences to not going through. I continue to use a leash to “check” the dog and down him if he tries to go around. You should know immediately if the dog is going to try and bypass the tunnel, but in case you are a little slow, use gloves otherwise the long line might burn your hands when you check the dog. If the dog is strong and fast, use the leash attached to a prong collar to equalize things for you.
I do the same exercises with all the obstacles: The meter jump, A frame, and window jump are all trained in a similar progression. This will help a lot as you move to the PSA 2 and are faced with directed jumping exercises, and multiple obstacles.
Now you can test the PSA trial version of the exercise, and if the dog is successful, you are in a position to make big points on trial day. Make sure that you continue to train the components of the exercise, but training the dog on offset sends, and sometimes have the decoy calmly agitate to see if the dog will stay on task going through the tunnel under additional distraction. Add in a second decoy behind you or off to the side, and passive, to see if the dog can discriminate when the tunnel command is given and go to the right decoy.
Defense of Handler Exercise (Guard)
Handler /dog team heel on leash towards a decoy and stop. The decoy and handler will greet each other and then shake hands. Dog must remain neutral. The decoy will then walk away while another decoy approaches from behind. The decoy approaching from behind will either walk around and greet the handler from the front, and then attack or will just attack from behind. An attack will be a sharp strike to the handler’s upper body with the hand. The dog must defend the handler. Mandatory out/guard. Scoring: Heel & Greeting (5) Stay (10) Defense (15) Grip (5) Drive (5) Out & Guard (10).
The defense of handler scenario, as with the “fighting decoys” scenario requires training on the principle of decoy neutrality. Many young dogs when they see a decoy in a bite suit start to load themselves if they are not otherwise occupied by obedience to keep their focus on the handler. The challenge in this scenario is to keep the dog from biting upon approaching the decoy in the heel and greeting, and during the initial conversation with the 1st friendly decoy.
This particular scenario is all about control around decoys and delayed gratification for the dog. I do not recommend actually setting up this scenario (nor any scenario) and doing it as it is presented for trial. The key to doing well in a trial is to set the dog up for success by building the parts that make up the whole. If we break this one down from last to first skill, you can see this isn’t a scenario like the tunnel that has a natural flow or progression in terms of it being a chain of behavior for the dog to learn. Instead it is about neutrality to the decoy, and understanding when and when not, for the dog, to feel free to make decoy contact. The following are the skills:
Skill # 1: Heeling correctly with a decoy on the field moving toward you. In this scenario you will start in basic position, with a decoy in front of you, and you will heel toward the decoy as he walks toward you. This should be part of your dog’s skill set already for the PSA 1. If all you have done with your obedience is to heel around a decoy in a chair, you may squeak by in obedience, but the movement and the presence of the decoy standing in this scenario may cause your dog to forge during the heeling. While the heel and greeting is only 5 points, if your dog breaks and bites the decoy upon shaking hands, your exercise is a zero and you cannot title. So while the points are low, control is essential.
You should practice heeling around decoys that are moving around the field. Come on the field with the decoy in a chair first, and as you are heeling around (especially if your dog is highly attracted to the stimulus) have the decoy slowly get up and start walking. Too many handlers have the decoy immediately start agitating, running, and then when the dog tries to break or looks away are forced to compulse the attention/position. Think of this as a systematic desensitization exercise. Have your decoy walk around, sometimes stopping and being still, and you can heel around variably rewarding the dog for proper heeling. Over a succession of sessions have the decoy be a little more active, make a little more noise, but it should be done in waves. As you increase the draw from the decoy, increase the frequency and duration of the reward you give the dog for being correct. If the dog tolerates the decoy well, have the decoy dial back the stimulation. The stimulation should go up and down, managing both the intensity and duration of the stimulation that the dog must become neutral to.
Move close and away as you heel, fall in behind him sometimes and then break away and reward, and sometimes heel toward the decoy. In your mind you must set the criteria for what you are going to reward and why. In decoy neutrality training the dog must think you are the source of the reward, not the decoy otherwise you will become less interesting and the dog, if impulsive enough, will build his frustration to a point where if he is too close he may not be able to help taking a bite on the handshake. Remember, you don’t need a full grip to fail, only teeth on the suit. You should heel past the decoy, heel up close but far enough that the dog cannot lunge out and grip. However, you should expect the dog to try so don’t be caught unaware. Always expect the mistake to be made. Never expect the dog to be correct. If he is correct reward the dog with his toy from you, as you heel away from the decoy.
Skill #2: Stay Means no Bite. When the dog is showing neutrality (no self-loading as you approach the decoy) start halting and give the stay command with the decoy a few feet back. Be ready to intervene of the dog decides to load on him, just heel away, and get the dog into a more settled mood. If you have excellent eye contact, demand it throughout. The dog cannot maintain eye contact and position and bite at the same time. This is what is known as training mutually exclusive behaviors. Return to rewarding good position, and attention, and then try again. When the dog can tolerate heeling up and sitting in basic position (give a stay command if you wish) with the decoy about a yard in front, start practicing the handshake tolerance. This is a systematic desensitization exercise. Either you can approach the decoy or you can start in a sit with eye contact and have the decoy approach you. It is also a successive approximation exercise.
If you push the proximity of the decoy too fast, the dog may try to grip. We want to avoid allowing the dog to get into the mindset of being on the verge of biting. This is tolerance. Just like a dog can be neutral (indifferent) to a gunshot, the dog must be neutral to a calm approach of a decoy. You don’t want the drive to build and build and then be “capped” but rather you want desensitization to occur. I suggest a subtle cue here, where you reach for the decoy’s hand and he reacts to you by reaching toward you. If the dog sees this each time, and the result is no bite, the dog will be cued to continue to be calm when you reach toward the decoy initially. Move slowly but deliberately. Practice shaking hands at a distance, without even touching, and slowly over a few sessions, come closer together. The reward for the stay is always from you (toy) as you heel away from the decoy. Use a calm verbal marker as you would for any stay exercise to bridge the behavior you are rewarding to the release into the toy or ball as you heel away.
Skill # 3: Delayed Gratification. Make a training session of the dog doing many of these calm approaches, shaking of the hands, and the decoy leaving. You can lineup 3 decoys and go from one to the next to the next. Each time the dog must show focus on you in heeling, and calm acceptance of the decoy during the handshake. In essence you are trying to make the heeling together and handshake an exercise where the dog expects nothing to happen, to create true neutrality. The decoy walks away, and then you go to the next one, etc. Next you must have the second decoy approach, but do not give the bite on the approach and attack of the second decoy! You must practice the same neutrality with the approach of the second decoy, because the dog must stay calm through another greeting before that second decoy puts hands on you to initiate the attack and signal the dog to be allowed to grip. 80-90% of the training of this exercise should be friendly approaches by all decoys, both the first one and the second one.
Skill #4: Cue for the grip. In the exercise, once the initial friendly decoy says goodbye and walks away, as I said, another decoy will approach you. The dog must stay “neutral” according to the rules. As the second decoy approaches from either behind or from the front, if the dog starts to anticipate that now he is getting the grip because you have trained the trial exercise as it is written, you will lose a number of points. Any handler intervention with the leash, or extra commands will cost points. At this point the dog needs to be completely neutral to approaches and tolerate the decoy in proximity to the handler, before we introduce the possibility that one of these decoys will attack. Your dog already knows how to grip the left bicep or in the legs. The cue for the grip will be the decoy pushing you, generally from the front greeting position, with his left arm into your right shoulder. Just to make sure our neutrality training didn’t make the dog too sleepy to bite (right!) we set the scenario up so that we are going to do 4 greetings that are friendly and on say the 5th one have the decoy attack. On the attack you should give the command to bite, and praise the dog for reacting to the attack on your person. The dog bites, have the decoy just calmly walk backwards (no need to make this grip too intense) and then do your out/guard and heel away. Now go back to doing another 4 or 5 friendly greetings with no bite. Literally one in 10 of these greetings and no more (for very sharp dogs, you can do 1 in 20) should include an attack and a bite. You want your dog to think it’s possible a greeting will result in a grip but not real probable on any given greeting. In fact, rarely give the grip on the first few approaches. Let the dog learn the gratification here is delayed, so as to reduce his impulsiveness, as we do in many other exercises. (I use the same principle of delayed gratification to teach a generally force free food refusal).
Redirected Attack (Guard)
Handler and dog shall begin at a marked starting place. One decoy shall be placed at a distance of 30 yards downfield of the team. A second decoy shall be passive, and directly behind the team at a distance of at least 10 yards. Upon the command of the steward the downfield decoy shall fire the blank gun twice and flee, upon the start of the action the handler should direct his dog to apprehend the fleeing decoy. Upon engaging the decoy the decoy shall briefly drive the dog, and upon command of the steward shall freeze. The handler shall then call his dog to return, as the second decoy has advanced upon him. After the handler’s command for the dog to return has been made, the second decoy shall vocally pretend to attack the handler, and the dog must return to defend the handler by engaging the second decoy. The decoy shall briefly drive the dog, and on command of the steward, freeze up, and the handler shall command his dog to out and guard, and upon signal, pick up his dog from the guard. The handler may attach the leash on the dog in the guard. Scoring: Send (5 points), Grip (10 points) Release (5 points) Return Speed (5 points) Defense (5 Points) Grip (10 Points) Release (5 points) Guard (5 points).
Re-directed bites, by definition, are scenarios where the dog is sent to bite one decoy, and must be called out of the grip to be sent to another decoy. This should be a fluid motion, not having the dog out and fall into a guard, but to leave the grip, turn and head to the handler in one fluid motion. In PSA this scenario shows up in more formal fashion in the PSA 2 “Two man Attack.” In the upper levels of the PSA 2 and PSA 3 there are a number of scenarios where this redirected bite may be employed, so it is imperative that you and your dog become comfortable with it. In PSA your dog must be fluid with both out and guard and out and return, and the out and return begins with training the redirect.
The redirect will also be the basis for teaching a fast out and return as well, so this exercise is very important! I also use it for starting directional, but that is also another discussion! Let’s break it down:
- Skill #1: Send to a fleeing bite with gunfire
- Skill #2: Release and return to handler for a handler attack
- Skill #3: Out and Guard
Skill #1: Even though it says send your dog upon the gunfire, there are scenarios below where you want to be sure the dog doesn’t break on gunfire, so the handler MUST not let the dog think gunfire means just go! The handler must train gunfire neutrality (dealt with in the last exercise below – the apprehension with transport). That discussion covers this skill.
Skill #2: release and Return to handler for handler attack bite. This is a very simple redirect in itself, however, the training of the redirect requires some thought and systematic training:
Re-direct Command Structure Once
we introduce the re-directed bite, we will now have two ways in which the dog can be disengaged from the grip. The out and guard, and the out and return must be distinguished on command. We want the dog to be able to drop into a guard on one command and stay focused on the decoy without looking back to the handler, that’s the out and guard. We also want the dog to “out” and come off the grip and return to the handler in a fluid motion on another separate command, that’s the out and return. Many new trainers use the same command for both, just calling the dog out of the guard for the redirect. This is faulty under the rules. Further, the problem that introduces is instability in the guard. The dog may anticipate another grip behind him, when in a trial situation, and the dog leaves the guard to go back toward the handler. By having two separate commands the dog can better discriminate between the two behaviors. If we structure our commands properly the dog shouldn’t experience any confusion as to what he should do. Here is how I structure these two separate disengage commands:
- Out & Guard: “OUT”
- Out & Return: “Dog’s Name & Heel/or Here”
The trainer should know ahead of time if the dog is normally easy or difficult to out. The added confusion of a second decoy on the field may cause some problems with the out as the excitement will be at a high level. The goal is to have the second decoy motivate the dog to disengage the first decoy when the first decoy freezes up, by excitedly agitating the dog with a whip or clatter stick, or jug of rocks, something very enticing, and then we slowly eliminate the agitation to the point where the dog will recall from the grip on command and engage a second, passive decoy. Be ready for the dog to mistakenly continue to fight decoy #1 when he hears the agitation behind him. This improperly directed aggression is normal. This is why the dog will be set up with a training collar to out the dog (the decoy can make the correction, or another trainer can float into the scene and make the correction), and a second line on the dog affixed to the agitation collar to physically control the dog. There are examples of setting up this command and correction structure on video on my YouTube channel: http://www.youtube.com/tarheelk9
It is critical to be aware that while motivating the dog to come back to another grip through agitation is initially desirable it can cause the dog to react only if he hears the agitation. This is a contextual cue that is inevitable, at least initially. We must wean the dog off this contextual cue to the desirable cue of the handler’s recall command “Ranger – Heel”.
Redirect Training set-up
Step 1: Planning
As in all our training, planning ahead to make sure we get the outcome we desire is crucial to keeping the dog out of conflict. The equipment necessary will be as follows: Long line (15’ or 30’) attached to a flat collar, and a short 6’ leash attached to a pinch collar. Later we will introduce the e-collar after the behavior is clear to the dog. Don’t rush into the E-Collar, as the E-Collar only gives stimulation and not direction. Further, a second line on the prong collar will allow the decoy not only to correct the release behavior, but if an out and guard is commanded to keep the dog from leaving the guard and returning to the 2nd decoy. There will be two decoys, set up 180 degrees apart. Both decoys should be equipped with a whip or other distraction to excite the dog’s prey drive. The handler comes out and has the dog sit in heel position and face one of the decoys. I like to start with a grip on the bite suit in the triceps area to make the out as easy as possible, minimizing the confrontation and defensive mood of the dog. The dog is sent to decoy #1 who works the dog, making sure to get the grip nice and full, as we would normally do. Then this first decoy makes sure there is a clear line from the back of his arm down the long line from the dog’s collar to the handler’s hand, as he holds the second line with a short leash to the pinch collar so he can make a correction to force the out if needed.
Step 2: Motivating the re-direct
The goal in motivating the re-direct is to trade out one passive decoy for a more exciting fight with another decoy. There is a very important progression to the redirect. After decoy #1 freezes up we are ready to re-direct the dog. The process is as follows:
Decoy # 1 freezes -> handler: “Ranger- Heel” -> Decoy # 2 Agitates just after dog’s name
Now, one of 2 things can happen. Either: (1) the dog lets go and comes to the agitating decoy, or (2) he stays in the grip on decoy 1. If he stays on the grip, decoy #1 must immediately correct the out (into the suit), and as soon as the dog drops out of the grip, and before he can come into a guard (what he already knows to do after the out) the handler must pop the long line on the flat collar as the second decoy continues agitating, to re-direct the dog on the second decoy. Three of the most common problems in the first few sessions are:
- (1) The dog does not out.
- (2) The dog outs but guards decoy #1 despite all the commotion behind him.
- (3) The dog outs but then on the agitation, re-engages decoy #1 (directing his aggression on the closest available target).
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